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The BCAAs stimulate the effect of insulin in three different manners. The first manner through which the metabolic pathway is affected is the increased production of insulin. It has been demonstrated that BCAA supplementation in accordance with carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise increases insulin output by 221%, which is much greater than the 66% supplementation without leucine. Leucine is the most readily oxidized BCAA and therefore the most effective at causing insulin secretion from the pancreas, and stimulating the metabolic pathway. This is important because insulin is the initiating factor that begins the signalling cascade. The second effect is outlined with the red arrows clearly indicating a phosphorylation cascade beginning with the activation of the Ras Rhed and ending with rpS6. The importance of rpS6 is that it induces mRNA translation. This translation leads to the production of proteins. The other side of the pathway indicated by the blue arrow induces the action of eIF4G. This initiation factor causes the binding of mRNA within the ribosome thus providing the initial products needed for translation. This leads down to the final product via protein binding and phosphorylation, resulting in eIF4E which induces mRNA translation which in turn leads to chain elongation, and termination, resulting in net protein growth.